Susceptibility map of mass movements in the southern slope of Avila

The mass movements that originate on the southwestern flank of the Avila, as observed in the analysis of the risk carried out in this work, cause numerous economic losses since many neighborhoods in the area are very susceptible to this threat, in view of the urban expansion of the city that has caused many settlements

Constraints, triggers and erosive factors affecting mass movements in the mountainous south area of Ávila in Venezuela, are spatially analyzed through ArcGIS software 10.0 a synthetic methodology that performs the analysis of these factors in each movement type (rock falls, landslides, road slope and flows) and then synthesize on a single map areas with increased susceptibility.

The main cause of mass movements in this area relates to geological conditions which are reactivated by active seismicity, heavy rainfall, and artificial changes to the ground. Only in Caracas city has registered more than 500 landslides with important effects in the last 60 years.

While the study of the risk of mass movements is elaborate, (a dispersed event in space-time and with low intensity) is one of the most costly threats at a socio-economic level.

Most of the movements studied are mainly controlled by the slope and lithology, observing that most of the most frequent instabilities occur in the metamorphic rock of the San Julián and Esquistos las Brisas Complex type and in alluvial quaternary.

Slope, altitude and orientation vary depending on the type of movement. Observed for rock falls and slopes that go from 20º to 35º and altitudes from 740 m.a.s.l. to 1110 m.a.s.l. Northeast facing mostly for landslides and southeast to the southwest of rock falls.

On the other hand, for edge faults and debris flows it is very variable, with a much lower slope and altitude for flows (0 to 10º) and a higher one for landslides, with slopes of up to 40º of dip being observed. They coincide in the maximum orientation that goes from southeast to southwest and in the fact that they are movements controlled by the adjacent hydrographic networks.

It is recommended that Venezuelan authorities take a forecast of the most frequent climatic threats and keep a forecast and control of dry vs. wet periods as these are the most frequent triggers that cause mass movements. This can be done by expanding the meteorological stations since there is currently the Maiquetía airport station, whose climatic variation contrasts with that of the southern flank of Avila, and the Caracas Valley.

As far as vegetation control is concerned, a good spatial analysis is recommended to determine the current vegetation type and thus to take vegetation as a conditioning factor. It is known that from the end of 2015 to March 2016 the ENSO has hit the Ávila mountain range causing major droughts and fires, which are triggering factors for mass movements but due to a lack of spatial information could not be included in the present work.

In addition, if urban expansion were to be controlled, the most vulnerable communities could be organized and warned of the danger that exists in this study. The most susceptible neighbourhoods are Plan de Manzano, Macayapa, Blandín, Araguaney and La Cortada.

Periodic awareness campaigns and visits to such communities can maintain areas potentially susceptible to threats from movements of evicted or prevented masses depending on the level of probability.

Global environmental issues challenges and solutions

Global environmental issues have become one of the most troubling problems in this decade. The problem has become worse every day and giving a visible effect on our current days. Therefore, in order to mitigate the problem. There are several points that we need to know. From the issues itself, how to solve it and how it can affect the whole world in general.

Environmental issues related to global warming

It has been known that current environmental issues regarding global warming have a very large impact on our ecosystem. Some of the most major issue regarding climate changes, broken ecosystem, species extinction due to the sudden climate changes, and also rise of sea level which is very dangerous. This kinds of issues are several of the most recent and problematic issues due to the global warming.

How to solve global environmental issues

Because we live on earth, global environmental issues and challenges are something that needs to be solved. There are several ways to solve a global environmental issue. First of all, we need to change our way of thinking. This means that we need to change our life and start to think more about our environment in a more different way. We need to preserve nature by not litter, not using or minimizing product that can harm earth and ozone, preserve the earth and start to take care of our surrounding. Many people are changing their lifestyles, to sustainable homes, zero waste life, electric cars, solar or wind power, eco-friendly products, stop the dairy & meat, composting, etc.

Global environmental issues and solutions, of course, is not something that can be done in just one day. It needs time to repair what we human have broken. However, it does not mean that it can be repaired. As long as we have the audacity and preservation to take care of nature we can do it. Start by taking care of our surrounding environment then we can move to a bigger solution to take care of the global environment caused by global warming.

Global environmental issues

Environmental issues with a global impact

For your global environmental issues facts, there are actually, several environmental issues with a global impact. One of the most infamous is the sea level rise as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans caused by melting of ice sheets and glaciers on land.

Click on the map to see how much flooding could happen in your coastal area:

sea level rise

The cause of this has been trying to be minimized on the decade but the problem is too big therefore it still needs time to be completely repaired. There are of course other important issues, and it is our duty as a human to make sure the issue can be thwarted for our future generation.

Understanding the impacts of global megatrends at the national level

The European Union and European countries are progressively connected each other with the people all over the world. Changing global economical and populace dynamics, the emergence of new technologies and wide-scale environmental changes can all influence Europe’s environment, world, and economies.

At the same time, Europe leads to environmental pressures in other parts of the world. Greenhouse gas exhausts in Europe lead to weather change impacts elsewhere, and globalized supply chains mean that European consumption plays a role in pressures on ecosystems and communities in other areas of the world.

This kind of statement sets out the logic for classifying the implications of Global Mega Trends at the nationwide, regional or European level, and should provide ideas to EEA member and cooperating countries to carry out their own national studies. It defines the condition and the details why understanding global trends is vital and sets away a suggested methodology for doing so, it identifies the context and why understanding global trends are important and sets away from a suggested methodology for doing this.

By simply considering GMTs and their environmental impacts in this way, one rule or convention for the ‘SEIA-GMT’ (simplified environmental impact examination of GMTs) can be defined: GMTs are linked to national trends, which are, in turn, linked to environmental impacts.

The suggested method described in this tool set has been developed under the project ‘Mapping Europe’s Future: understanding the effects of global megatrends at the national level’, which principal objective are develop a method that permits countries to think about impacts of the EEA GMTs and their meaning at a national level.