The environment is under serious pressure today. Water is the source of everything, without water there is no life possible. Water pollution is one of the most important problems of our time. A good knowledge of the water cycle, as well as the causes and consequences of water pollution, is therefore extremely important to address this problem. Water is purified both naturally and humanly, but prevention is always better than cure, of course.
Water Pollution 2018 is the 14th International Conference in the Water Pollution Monitoring, Modelling and Management series. This type of conference has always been very successful as it provides a forum for discussion between scientists, managers and academics from different areas of water pollution. The information exchanged at this international meeting continues to be of great use to all those involved.
Growing water pollution combined with population growth and rising consumption of fresh water is creating a shortage of drinking water and available water supplies. The fauna and flora of our planet also suffer enormously from this pollution.
Given the paucity of available data, it is important that experiences are shared internationally. A continuous exchange of information between scientists from different countries is therefore essential.
The following list covers the topics to be presented at the meeting:
Among other things, car tyres, synthetic clothing and even tea bags contain microplastics.
The problem with any kind of plastic is that it eventually becomes tiny but never disappears completely. In the oceans even the largest and most stubborn pieces of plastic are broken down by the waves and sunlight until they are smaller than five millimetres in diameter – about the size of an ant. At that time, they are classified as’ secondary microplastics’. This type of plastic, which was once a drinking bottle, equipment for fishing, disposable cutlery and so on, is even more common than’ primary microplastics’, which were small from the outset, such as the micrograins contained in toothpaste.
Micrograins are the best known cause of contamination by small pieces of plastic. But that also means that there are other, less obvious sources for microplastics in everyday life. We call them ‘hidden microplastics’, and they fall within this category:
Car tyres are made of rubber and approximately 60% plastic (styrene-butadiene). The friction, pressure and heat caused by driving, the tyres wear out so hard that plastic dust is formed. Blowing that dust into the atmosphere can contribute to poor air quality. This is seen by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a cause of premature death.
The dust can also flush to rivers and oceans via sewers. It will probably be eaten there by filtering animals such as mussels, which will end up in our food chain. The industry could go back to natural rubber rubber latex, but that would put too much pressure on the environment: growing rubber plantations are already a catastrophe for endangered species in South East Asia.
Outdoor sports equipment, leggings, fleeces and sweaters made of acrylic, polyester, polyamide, spandex or nylon release up to 700,000 microfibres per wash. And once they end up in the water, it is difficult to filter them out again. More still, research has shown that in many countries the tap water now contains microfibres.
In the USA, for example, 94% of the steel microfibres contained. They end up in the air because of friction or as dust from the dryer and can then be inhaled. It is also suspected that the lungs can absorb the toxins in the fibres. In nature, the microfibres are eaten by fish and other animals, which prefer them to’ real’ food. A solution can be to provide all washing machines with filters and to choose natural fibres.
The fluffy exterior is made of PET (polyethylene terephthalate), the same material that plastic milk bottles are made of. Just like car tires, the plastic is worn away by use, making it dusty.
Pods or tablets for dishwasher or washing machine
All kinds of detergents and abrasive disinfectants contain microplastics such as polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP), the same granules banned in cosmetics in France and the United Kingdom. It would be better to use a natural material, such as ground coconut shells.
The filters are made from cellulose acetate, a type of plastic that is not biodegradable. They can emit microfibres and, when used, they also emit large quantities of toxins, including nicotine. Cigarette butts are a major polluter in the oceans and are most frequently collected when cleaning up beaches.
Glitter is a favourite part of craft lessons, but not innocent. It is made from PET or polyvinyl chloride film (PVC) and is very difficult to break down. Instead, you could use glitter of biodegradable film made from eucalyptus.
All these products are usually made from polyester, polyethylene and polypropylene – or from a mixture of these plastics and natural fibres. They cause so-called “fat mountains” that block sewers and are not broken down. They are also a source of plastic microfibres. A traditional flannel version made entirely of cotton is an environmentally friendly solution.
Many tea bags are not fully biodegradable because they include a polypropylene “skeleton”. This skeleton then breaks down into tiny particles when the paper is decomposed in the compost heap or soil. Ask the producer if your tea is free of plastic, or switch to loose tea.
Plastic dust from thermoplastic paint used for road markings, ships and houses is spread over the ocean surface. Fortunately not all paint contains plastic: go looking for paint with linseed oil or latex as a binding agent.
Paper cups are coated on the inside with a layer of polyethylene. Just like tea bags, the paper is completely broken down, but the plastic falls apart when the cup is thrown away or composted. Such mixed materials must therefore be treated by a specialised recycling company. You can also always bring a refillable bag.
According to the Plastic Soup Foundation, 311 million tonnes of new plastic are currently being produced each year. Approximately half is for single use and is thrown away immediately. Most plastics are not biodegradable. We neet to combat plastic pollution in the ocean becouse is growing at an appalling rate. Plastic production is expected to increase enormously in the coming years as the world population and economy continues to grow.
Watch this this documentary shot on more than 20 locations. Explorers Craig Leeson and Tanya Streeter and a team of international scientists reveal the causes and consequences of plastic pollution and share solutions.
The 19th edition of the International Fair of Urbanism and Environment TECMA, will host a program that gives tangible answers to the main issues that most concern the managers of cities, ensuring that this call is not only an exhibition space for the main companies of the sector, but also a place where to exchange good practices, knowledge and real experiences in the day to day of the responsible ones of our cities.
With the aim of giving updated and real-time answers to urban problems, TECMA 2018 will also put the emphasis on promoting and disseminating services, products and innovation processes, both technological and social, creating a new space called TECMA VERDE where companies and organizations will be able to count their main innovative projects that help to design cities more sustainable and with better quality of life for their inhabitants. Thus, TECMA 2018 will be confirmed as the benchmark for companies, organizations and municipalities in the areas of urban environment, climate change, circular economy and innovation.
TECMA is part of the Environment and Sustainability Forum, FSMS, whose third call organises IFEMAfrom 13 to 15 June 2018. This forum is also integrated by the 6th edition of the International Fair of Recovery and recycling, SRR; The 3rd Salon of cleaning and professional hygiene, Desclean; The 3rd ENVIFOOD Meeting Point, and the third forum of the cities of MADRID.
The Environment and Sustainability Forum, FSMS, is an integrative and transversal meeting that connects ideas and people. This is a biennial call and a vocation to put into value the advances in environmental sustainability in different areas of activity and to operate as a transversal space, which brings together various activities. Currently, it has the collaboration of more than 80 organizations from different sectors.
FSMS analyzes the environmental consequences that are associated with the large industry, but also the solutions and techniques offered today by companies and institutions to make possible the demands of a sustainable social, economic and environmental development.
Plastic Bank is one of the most popular programs that was first found in 2013 by David Katz & Shaun Frankson to give a solution to stop ocean plastic. Plastic Bank has a mission to stop Ocean Plastic by inviting many people to earn money by collecting some waste from the ocean to clean up the sea. Plastic Bank has a hope to get rid of plastic garbage from the ocean and save the sea species life from contamination.
As we know that our ocean today is no longer clean because of plastic bags which are floating on the sea and kill many sea species. Everybody must take responsibility to clean up the ocean from plastic garbage. In this case, Plastic Bank will try to facilitate the people to collect some garbage from the ocean and make some money from the waste.
Do you want to get some extra income while saving our environment too? Fortunately, you are able to join this Plastic Bank program and you can also invite others to do the same and earn some money from collecting some plastic waste. Nowadays, there are about one million people who support this program and you can even find this Plastic Bank solution on social media networks. This can be the best way to reduce plastic pollution in the ocean and find the value in the waste found where you can send the plastic garbage to collectors.
Plastic Bank is not only helping the environment, but they also save the life of sea species so that they can regenerate and have a better ecosystem. Now, it is our turn to be aware of our ocean condition for a better environment. In addition, it is also will be very beneficial for the human health and it also gives a beauty value and makes our world look wonderful again. Plastic Bank will never stop this program until the ocean is clean totally and they also invite people for not littering and care about the environment more.
Inhambane is a province of Mozambique located on the south coast of the country.
Health-care Key facts: Of the total volume of waste generated by health-care activities, the 85% is overall. The remaining 15% is measured unsafe material that may be infectious, lethal or radioactive. Every year an estimated 16 billion injections are managed worldwide, but not all of the needles and syringes are appropriately disposed of afterwards. Health-care waste holds potentially harmful microorganisms, which can contaminate hospital patients, health workers and the general community. In some situations is incinerated, and dioxins, furans and other poisonous air pollutants may be shaped as emissions.
The main objective of this project was to improve the environmental quality and the hospital waste management system in the province of Inhambane designing a protocol for the management of hospital waste from working sessions with local technicians and experts in the field. Also the design and construction of waste management modules in 4 hospital centers and the recruitment of hospital facilities in both the Protocol and the use of the modules.
According to the NGOPlastic Oceans the propagation of plastic products in the last 70 years has been surprising. We are now producing closely 300 million tons of plastic every year, half of which is for single use. More than 8 million tons of plastic is dumped into our oceans every year.
The initiative that aims to end with the ocean waste is called The Ocean Clean Up. They are like barriers (large) that prevent floating debris from following the natural course of global marine currents. Placed in strategic points, these barriers would capture a large part of the floating matter that passes through where there is one of these.
The Ocean Clean Up technology will be able to block and catch plastic trash on the sea meanwhile the pipe is also able to follow the wave stream in the form of U-shape. Once there some plastics caught by the floater, and then a vessel of the Ocean Clean Up will come and take the whole trash using a pump and belt.
After cleaning up the trash from the sea surface, it will save the sea species from danger. Meanwhile, the plastic garbage will be collected and then it will be recycled to be converted into high-quality products such as chairs, cell phone, car bumper, toys, sunglasses, and much more.
They currently have a prototype installed in the North Pacific. The operational design, however, is believed to be operational until the mid-2018.
In this modern era, there are so many electronic devices that have been manufactured and they now become garbage that can pollute the environment. Many people do not know what to do with their broken phones, computers, and televisions, so they just throw their unused electronic devices to landfill. Meanwhile, these unused electronic devices can actually be recycled so they do not pollute the environment. Fortunately, there is an important solution to solve this electronic garbage problem, especially for those who live in India. It is E-Waste Program that can help people in India solve their Electronic waste issues.
E-Waste is a program that aims to train waste pickers in India to be recognized as a formal waste picker to collect some electronic waste such as smartphones, TVs, computers, and others so that these products can be recycled. The waste pickers will use special waste boxes in green accent and then they look for electronic waste from home to home or through socialization. There are about 2000 garbage pickers who have been trained to deal with electronic garbage for the purpose of recycling and safe disposal. Certainly, this program is very beneficial for society and environment.
Benefits of E-waste Program
This program can help Indian citizens provide new jobs so they can meet their daily needs. This program was initiated by Chintan in collaboration with Delhi’s Pollution Control Committee to train waste pickers so they can improve their ability to collect garbage to keep the environment clean and uncontaminated. Another benefit is to collect e-waste for safe disposal because electronic garbage contributes bigger impact toward the environment pollution. This program is also part of going green program to protect the world from dangerous materials that may damage ecosystem and nature. Next, once the waste pickers collect some electronic garbage, then the garbage will be recycled to reuse again or it may be converted into high-quality products that are useful for all of the people.
This effort will reduce methane emission, reduce overall energy consumption, generate green jobs for waste pickers, and much more.
IRCOW (2011-2014) and HISER (2015-2019) projects aim to develop solutions for maximizing the material recovery from construction and demolition Waste (C&DW). Cost efficient recovery requires both enhanced segregation of materials at demolition/refurbishment works and integral recycling approaches. Providing solutions for increased levels of quality assurance of recycled materials, higher certainty of their influence in current manufacture processes and (performance/durability) of the subsequent building products is also aimed, as can lead to increased demand. Also standards/policy recommendations are expected, to drive higher market acceptance.
Amongst others, IRCOW adapted advanced sorting technologies for improving the quality of recycled aggregates. This approach is being fine-tuned in HISER. Other HISER technological solutions for C&DW recycling refer to electro-fragmentation techniques (for the selective release of materials adhered in the stony fraction) or the mobile treatment plant for stony fraction, including ADR classification/refining process and a LIBS-based quality assurance system. Innovative recycling equipment of gypsum-based waste and the optimization of recovery concepts for C&D wood and mineral wool are in the pipeline. Moreover, closing the material loop, a range of recycled products was designed in IRCOW. Likewise, HISER is optimizing products such as cements, concretes, bricks, gypsum-based products or extruded composites.
In the chapter of solutions for increased segregation of materials at works, HISER is developing a software tool to support the pre-demolition study. Also a tracking system that can lead to higher quality of the to-be recycled waste and increased trust in its quality. Reuse option was also explored by IRCOW. All solutions are/will be tested in case studies and (economically/environmentally) assessed from a life cycled perspective.
IRCOW and HISER projects received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme and Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme respectively, under grant agreement numbers 265212 and 642085.
Clean-Way Ltd. is an innovative waste management company aiming to maximize the collection and recycling of construction and demolition waste in Hungary.
Being one of the leading companies with expertise in C&D waste management, the management launched an R&D project in order to maximise the reuse and recycling of C&D generated in Hungary.
The final outcome of this project is an ICT tool: the Clean-Way software, which can help every stakeholder of the construction industry: municipalities, constructors, waste recyclers.
The software collects and shows real-time data to all users about the following:
– Site information is listed: all construction sites where C&D waste is being generated
– Location is shown: the sites are located on a map, using different – Data of producer: C&D waste generating company and contact details
– C&D waste: Amount and EWC code of the C&D waste
– Data on material wanted: not only generated waste, but also “wanted” material can be registered, to help the match between producers and users of the material
– Stakeholders access: usage can be different according to the stakeholder (constructor generating waste, constructor looking for by-product or recycled material, authority)
The software can help in creating a link between the demolition site and the new construction site. It reduces transport cost, environmental emissions related to a low cost material. We would like to highlight the benefits and the potential uses of the software, and start a regional or national discussion about the introduction of innovative (ICT) tools in waste management.
Our aim is to maximise waste reuse, save cost and reduce environmental emissions!
A Performance, Economic and Environmental Recycling Assessment (PEERA) Methodology was established part of a project funded by the UK government and the construction industry, allowed “Built Environment Action on Waste Awareness and Resource Efficiency” (BEAWARE). The project talked issues associated with: supply chain resource efficiency; and cross sector construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling opportunities.
The PEERA technique is a waste mapping and decision support tool to explore C&D waste recycling potential opportunities. It speeches several problems such as: gathering lifecycle data on waste varieties and amounts; examining disposal and current recycling costs; detecting and addressing reuse and recycling limiting factors (e.g. economic, technical and environmental blockers); ranking C&D waste materials in terms of their recycling potential; and measuring the viability of reprocessing routes.
The PEERA methodology includes ten stages:
Waste causes, amounts and value
Waste costs and current recycling station
Recycling limiting factors
Re-use/recycling costs and markets.
The PEERA methodology was authenticated through a series of workshops and studies, during which information was collected directly from key supply chain stakeholders. More than 45 C&D waste materials were recognized during the initial waste targeting data collection. Through a systematic selecting and prioritizing process across the PEERA methodology stages, 10 C&D waste materials with high recycling potential were designated for the final two stages: recycling requirements (Stage 9) and recycling costs and market worth (Stage 10). Within the timeframe of the project, the emphasis has been focused towards waste materials that: happen in sufficient abundance; are chemically stable; are arranged at source; do not incur unnecessary collection, transportation and processing costs; and can be easily be related with markets for recycled products. As a result, Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) waste was designated for recycling experimental optimization programs leading to new applications. Hence, laboratory testing tests were directed towards measuring the potential of recycling GRP waste in rubber composites and existing composites. While the validation of the PEERA methodology led to products within the construction sector, it could be customized and used for an extensive range of potential applications in other businesses.
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